Business Process and Organized Process
A Process for taking out a contract has to link Functions such as:
- Get customer information (already stored or new)
- Identify the Product purchased and its options
- Check that the Customer is eligible
- Calculate the price
- Print the contract
- Sign the contract
This series of Actions relies on Product, Customer, Contract and Account Information.
In this list, we do not have to determine which Actor will carry out the different Functions.
This is the Business Process.
Different forms of Organization (and therefore different "Organized Processes") can be defined to execute this Business Process:
- For example, the order can be entered in the enterprise branch by the employee, or by a partner who distributes the product or by the customer on the Internet
- For example, the delivery can be carried out by the enterprise's delivery department, or a delivery partner or the Post Office.
To summarize, "Business" is anything that defines the Business independent of the Organization chosen by the Enterprise: definition of the Products, Information on the Customers, Partner choices, pricing rules...
"Organization" refers to the organization chart, the Role of the Actors, the authorizations, the responsibilities, the allocation of Activities...
This fundamental difference should help us to build a Solution that leans on the Business and supports the different Organizations (successive or parallel).
The Approach is simple: we must not rush into defining who does what, but focus on the Actions and Information of the Business Process.
Then, as a second step, choose one or several forms of organization.
Finally, computerize the Business Process and isolate the Organizational part so that we can rapidly change the organization without losing the investment already made.
The following example shows how to analyze billing:
A Software Solution lasts for 20 years, Organizations are in perpetual movement: how do we analyze the Processes so that the Software deduced from them easily supports the different successive or simultaneous Organizations?
If you ask Operational Actors to describe the way they work or would like to work, they will naturally describe what they experience on a daily basis: Actors execute Activities. They will rarely talk to you about Processes or Information.
From what the operational Actor says, the approach of the Solution Builder should be the following one:
We define the Business Model: Information, Business Functions and their sequence
- 1. Define Business
Objects such as "Customer", "Product",
"Order", "Delivery": these are the most stable
elements of the Enterprise
- 2. Define the life cycle of each of these Objects to
show the Core Business Functions: "create",
"control", "modify", "query", "set price", "debit"...
- 3. Define the Business Processes and decompose them by reusing the Business Functions defined in step 2 and by adding new ones that we can only find by analyzing the Process requirements.
- 1. Define Business Objects such as "Customer", "Product", "Order", "Delivery": these are the most stable elements of the Enterprise Architecture.
We define the different forms of organization: who does what (Human-Actors and IT-Actors)
- 4. Define what Roles are attributed to the Actors or Organizational units that group them together.
- 5. Define the Organized Processes divided up into Activities (an Activity is executed by only one Actor) to allocate them to the Roles defined in 4. Decompose each Organized Process into Business Functions and Organization Functions (the latter are part of the Foundations)
We build the software by separating the business part from the organization part.
The interest of this 5-step Building approach, separating Business and Organization, is multiple:
- The Solutions, based on the Business, are perennial and can support changes in organization
- We make the reusable Objects and Functions appear because we analyze the Business Objects before the Processes.
- We can begin Building the Solution without waiting for the whole Organization to be defined.
- The Solution can easily adapt itself to external partners.
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